What happens to all the childrens

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As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh

1) What happens to all the childrens including non-muslims that die before the puberty?

2) What do we believe about non-Muslims who did not receive the message of Islam?

3) Will those non-Muslims who have many disabilities, some of which prevent them from understanding things such as unable to talk, see, hear, etc?

4) Who is the Ashāb al-‘Arāf?

Can you provide a fully detailed explanation on the subject with academic reference, as well as about the ulama of different schools on the subject, as well as authors like Tabari?








Muhtaram / Muhtaramah


In the Name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāh wa-barakātuh.

1. Muslim children who pass away before puberty will be in Jannah (paradise). The Scholars are unanimous on this view, as stated by Ibn Hajar Makki (rahimahullah).[1]

(Fatawa Hadithiyya, pg 78, Darul Fikr)


With regards to non-Muslim children who pass away before puberty, there appears to be four opinions amongst the Scholars. They are as follows:

1.They will be in Jannah, as recorded in Sahih Bukhari that Nabi (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had seen the children of the believers and disbelievers around Ibrahim (‘alayhis salaam) during his journey of mi’raj in Jannah.
2.They will be in Jahannum, as they will be considered to have followed the religion of their disbelieving parents.
3.Precaution should be adopted and a ruling must not be issued concerning their final abode, since it is possible that had they lived longer, they would have accepted Islam.
4.The fire of Jahannum would be kindled and an announcement would be made: ‘Enter the fire’. Those who were destined for Jahannum would enter the fire and the others will not.

Ibn Abdil Barr (rahimahullah) has stated that the third opinion is the view of most Scholars.[2]

(Fatawa Hadithiyya, pg 78, Darul Fikr)


2. A disbeliever who has not received the message of Islam, but does possess a sound intellect and has reached puberty, is not obliged to follow the religion of Islam. The Scholars are unanimous on this view.[3]

However, he is obliged to acknowledge the existence of one supreme God, Allah Ta’ala, as the creation of the universe is sufficient evidence to indicate to the existence of a supreme creator. If he does not acknowledge the existence of a supreme being, then his abode is Jahannum. This is narrated in zahirul riwayah and is the view of majority Hanafi Scholars.[4]

However, there are two other opinions:

Imam Ash’ari (rahimahullah) is of the opinion that he is excused and will not be in Jahannum.[5]

Other Scholars are of the opinion that he is obliged to acknowledge the existence of one supreme God, Allah Ta’ala. However, if he does not do so, he will be sinful but not punished in Jahannum.

3. Blind, deaf or dumb people do possess sound intellect. Therefore, the above ruling applies to them. However, if they lack sound intellect, they would be excused.

(Daw’ul Ma’aali, pg 139, Darul Beiruti)

Nukhbatul La’aali, pg 120, Maktaba Haqiqah)

(Nashul La’aali, pg 144, Darul Beiruti)


4. There are more than ten views regarding the Ashaabul-A’raaf, as stated by Sh. Abdullah Sirajuddin (rahimahullah) in his book titled, Al-Imaan. Hereunder are some of the famous views:

1.Those believers whose good and evil deeds were equal, as recorded in Sunan al-Baihaqi.
2.Those believers who were martyred in the path of Allah Ta’ala or travelled in the quest of knowledge. However they had done so without the happiness of their parents.
3.The children of the disbelievers.

Majority of the Sahaba and Tabi’un prefer the first view, whilst Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) has stated that he is unaware of the third view being established from any narration.[6]



(Tafseer al-Ahmadiyyah (Mulla Jeewan), pg 416, Maktaba al-Haram)

(Fatawa Hadithiyya, pg 78, Darul Fikr)

(Al-Imaan, pg 503)  

And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best


For: Darul Ifta, Madrasah In’aamiyyah


  • The Sharée ruling herein given is specifically based on the question posed and should be read in conjunction with the question.
  • The Darul Ifta bears no responsibility to any party who may or may not act on this answer. The Darul Ifta being hereby exempted from loss or damage howsoever caused.
  • This answer may not be used as evidence in any Court of Law without prior written consent of the Darul Ifta.



1 أما أطفال المسلمين ففي الجنة قطعاً بل إجماعاً ، والخلاف فيه شاذ بل غلط

(الفتاوى الحديثية، ص 78، دار الفكر)

2 وأما أطفال الكفار ففيهم أربعة أقوال : أحدها : أنهم في الجنة… الثاني : أنهم في النار تبعاً لآبائهم…. والثالث : الوقف ويعبر عنه بأنهم في المشيئة فمن علم منه تعالى أنه إن بلغ آمن أدخله الجنة أو كفر أدخله النار ، ونسبه ابن عبد البر للأكثرين…. الرابع : أنهم يجمعون يوم القيامة وتؤجج لهم نار ويقال ادخلوها فيدخلها من كان في علم الله شقياً ويمسك عنها من كان في علم الله سعيداً…

(الفتاوى الحديثية، ص 78، دار الفكر)


(نشر اللالى بشرح بدء الامالي، ص 146، دار البيروتي) وأجمعوا علي أنه في أحكام الشرع معذور 3

4 فعن عامتهم: نعم وهو مروى عن أبي حنيفة. فقد روى الحاكم الشهيد في المنتقى عن أبي حنيفة أنه قال: لا عذر لأحد بالجهل بخالقه لما يرى من خلق السموات والأرض وخلق نفسه وسائر خلق ربه. وعن أبي حنيفة أيضا أنه قال:لو لم يبعث الله رسولا..لوجب على الخلق معرفته بعقولهم.وفي ظاهر الرواية عنه: أنه لو لم يعرف ربه ومات..يخلد في النار

(ضوء المعالى، ص 142، دار البيروتي )


5 لا يجب عليه ويعذر لو لم يؤمن وبه قال الأشعرى

(الرجع السابق)

6 قال ابن تيمية : والقول بأنهم في الأعراف لا أعرفه عن خبر ولا أثر

(الفتاوى الحديثية، ص 78، دار الفكر)